The earthquake that rocked Chile in 2010, one of the largest in history, measured a magnitude of 8.8. Past earthquakes near Valdivia, Provincia de Valdivia, Los Rios Region, Chile, during December 2020 Updated 3 Jan 2021 01:56 GMT - There was only one earthquake of magnitude 6.7 in or near Valdivia … One of the main aftershocks occurred on 6 June in Aysén Region. After hours of drifting around in Corral Bay and Valdivia River, the ship was wrecked and subsequently abandoned by its crew at 18.00 PM. These earthquakes formed a southward migrating foreshock sequence to the main Valdivia shock, which occurred just 15 minutes after the third event. 3. The powerful wave killed 61 people in Hawaii, 32 in the Philippines and138 in Japan . The rupture zone was roughly from Valdivia to the south. Various studies have placed it at 9.4–9.6 on the moment magnitude scale. The Valdivia Earthquake recorded the magnitude of 9.5 Tsunami The Valdivia earthquake produced a strong tsunami that travelled at a speed of about 200 miles per hour through the Pacific Ocean. It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and lasted approximately 10 minutes. The earthquake hit at 3:11 pm approximately 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of Chile, parallel to the city of Valdivia.The shock is generally agreed to have had a magnitude of 9.5, though some studies alternately proposed that it may have been 9.4 or 9.6 The Valdivia Earthquake took place on the southern coast of Chile, near the city of Valdivia at 3:11 pm (local time) on May 22, 1960. [25] Plans were made to evacuate Valdivia, and many people left. It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and lasted approximately 10 minutes. Pedro Mariño de Lobera, who was corregidor of Valdivia by that time wrote that the waters of the river opened like the Red Sea, one part flowing upstream and one downstream. One ship, Canelos, starting at the mouth of the Valdivia River, sank after being moved 1.5 km (0.93 mi) backward and forward in the river; as of 2005, its mast was still visible from the road to Niebla. The first of these was the 8.1 Mw Concepción earthquake at 06:02 UTC-4 on 21 May 1960. The 1960 Chilean earthquakes were a sequence of strong earthquakes that affected Chile between 21 May and 6 June 1960, centered in the Araucanía, Aysén, and Bío Bío regions of the country. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. The lack of potable water became a serious problem in one of Chile's rainiest regions. The area of intensities of VII or more did not penetrate into the Central Valley north of Lleulleu Lake (38° S) and south of Castro (42.5° S).[10]. Chile is located on a tectonic plate boundary and a subduction zone called the Peru-Chile trench. One landslide caused destruction and alarm following its blockage of the outflow of Riñihue Lake (see "Riñihuazo" section below). [26] Between two sparsely populated and isolated Andean valleys, the eruption had few eyewitnesses and received little attention by local media, which was preoccupied with the severe and widespread damage and losses caused by the earthquake. The deadliest earthquake of all time hit China back in 1556, killing around 830,000 people. About 100,000 people lived in the affected zone. The focus was relatively shallow at 33 km (21 mi), considering that earthquakes in northern Chile and Argentina may reach depths of 70 km (43 mi). [42][43] The victim was 5-year-old José Luis Painecur, an "orphan" (huacho) whose mother had gone to work as a domestic worker in Santiago and left her son under the care of her father. It continued to operate, to develop approaches for national emergencies. It was felt in … [27], As a result of an evacuation plan, there were no reported human deaths associated with the eruption. Hundreds of people were already reported dead by the time the tsunami struck. The resulting tsunamis affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands. The earthquake triggered numerous landslides, mainly in the steep glacial valleys of the southern Andes. To avoid the destruction of the city, several military units and hundreds of workers from ENDESA, CORFO, and MOP started an effort to control the lake. It occurred in the afternoon (3:11 pm local time), and the resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. [10], The tsunami that struck the coast of southern Chile destroyed seaside farms, killing numerous livestock and people. In Osorno only about 20 houses were totally destroyed, although many firewalls and chimneys collapsed. These dams were removed later, with the exception of Calafquén Lake, which still retains its dam. Rupture velocity, the speed at which a rupture front expands across the surface of the fault, has been estimated as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) per second. intensity: X Mercalli: Casualties: 125 dead: The first was on May 21 at 06:02 UTC-4. They were released from prison after two years. underground water flowing up through the soil, earthquake and landslide occurred in 1575, "Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis at Subduction Zones", "The Largest Earthquake in the World – Articles", "The 1960 Chile earthquake: inversion for slip distribution from surface deformation", "El sufrimiento colectivo de una ciudad minera en declinación. Two days after the earthquake Cordón Caulle, a volcanic vent close to Puyehue volcano, erupted. [12] The average slip across all 27 Nazca subfaults was estimated to be 11 m, with 25–30 m of slip 200–500 km south of the epicenter on offshore subfaults. Riñihue Lake is the lowest of the Seven Lakes chain and receives a constant inflow from the Enco River. The earthquake was caused by a reverse fault, when the faults move together and the land moves upwards. [48], On 27 February 2010 at 03:34 local time, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake occurred just to the north (off the coast of the Maule region of Chile, between Concepción and Santiago). [10] Houses built by their owners fared badly. This era of prosperity ended with the 1960 earthquake. Subduction zones are known to produce the strongest earthquakes on earth, as their particular structure allows more stress to build up before energy is released. On 24 May, 38 hours after the main shock of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, the Cordón Caulle volcano erupted. [46] He said that the Spanish settlers had evacuated and waited on high ground until after the dam burst, but many aboriginals died in the flood waters. Date and Location Took place at 2:11 pm local time on the 22nd of May, 1960. [33], The earthquakes damaged an area that had suffered a long period of economic decline, which began with shifts in trade routes due to the expansion of railroads in southern Chile and the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. Several months later in April, it caused a flood. Not only were there catastrophic consequences in the South of Chile, the earthquake caused tsunamis that hit Japan (138 people killed), Hawaii (61 people killed) and the Philippines (32 people killed). Many city blocks with destroyed buildings in the city center remained empty until the 1990s and 2000s, with some of them still used as parking lots. The 1837 Valdivia earthquake struck south-central Chile on November 17. The team was led by ENDESA engineer Raúl Sáez. Destruction after the largest earthquake of the century in Valdivia on May 22, 1960 Time line of Earthquakes in Chile. Near the generating area, both the earthquake and the tsunami were extremely destructive, particularly in the coastal area extending from Concepcion to the south end of Isla Chiloe. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake (Spanish: Gran terremoto de Chile/Valdivia) of 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It lasted for 11 to 13 minutes and affected all of Chile between Talca and Chiloé Island, an area more than 400,000 square kilometers. In the regions of Maule and Bío Bío, houses built from adobe and masonry proved weak, while from Araucanía to the south weak houses were mainly those built with inappropriate wood that had decayed over time. [9] As the earthquake destroyed Valdivia's flood barriers, general land subsidence exposed new areas to flooding. [14], The Chilean coast was devastated by a tsunami from Mocha Island (38° S) to Aysén Region (45° S). About 100 km (62 mi) south of Riñihue Lake, landslides in the mountains around Golgol River caused the river to dam up; when it burst through the earthen dam, it created a flood down to Puyehue Lake. [47][14], Other lesser earthquakes that preceded the 1960 event occurred in 1737 and 1837. The tremor caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres (82 ft). [17], After the 21 May Concepción earthquake, people in Ancud sought refuge in boats. [10] Structures that had been designed to resist earthquakes performed well during the earthquake, chiefly suffering damage when affected by soil subsidence or small fault movements. Figueroa, Victor; Gayoso, Jorge; Oyarzun, Edgardo; Planas, Lenia. Juana Namuncura Añen, a local machi, demanded the sacrifice of the grandson of Juan Painecur, a neighbor, in order to calm the earth and the ocean. [18], At the coastal town of Queule, a carabinero reported hundreds of people dead or missing some days after the tsunami. Various estimates of the total number of fatalities from the earthquake and tsunamis have been published, ranging between 1,000 and 6,000 killed. The second and third Concepción earthquakes occurred the next day at 06:32 UTC-4 (7.1 Mw) and 14:55 UTC-4 (7.8 Mw) on 22 May. The Valdivia earthquake of 1960 May 22 is until now the largest event ever recorded by a seismic network. The electricity and water systems of Valdivia were totally destroyed. Land subsidence in Corral Bay improved navigability as shoal banks, produced earlier by sediments from Madre de Dios and other nearby gold mines, sank and were compacted. [24] The work was not restricted to the lake; drainages from other parts of the Seven Lakes were dammed to minimize additional flow into Riñihue Lake. Waves as high as 10.7 metres were recorded 10,000 kilometres from the epicentre, and as far away as Japan and the Philippines. El caso de Lota, Chile", "El domingo en que Valdivia sufrió el terremoto más violento del mundo", "Further observations of geologic and geomorphic changes resulting from the catastrophic earthquake of May 1960, in Chile", "An Mw =7.7 slow earthquake in 1960 near the Ays´en Fjord region, Chile", "Focal Process of the Great Chilean Earthquake May 22, 1960", "Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data", "Exploring the Historical Earthquakes Preceding the Giant 1960 Chile Earthquake in a Time-Dependent Seismogenic Zone", Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, "El "Riñihuazo" y su lucha contra la naturaleza", "Investigación aplicada sobre Geografía Urbana: Un caso práctico en la ciudad de Valdivia", "Genesis y manifestación de las inundaciones en el sur de Chile", "Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake", "Tsunami After Deadly Earthquake Hits Chile", "Chile Earthquake Altered Earth Axis, Shortened Day", 22 May 1960 South Central Chile Tsunami Amplitudes, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1960_Valdivia_earthquake&oldid=997661299, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 16:57. Together with earthquakes in 1575 and 1737 the earthquake is among the historical predecessors to the great 1960 earthquake. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake of Sunday, 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful megathrust earthquake ever recorded on Earth, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. [22] On 22 May, a seiche occurred also in Nahuel Huapi Lake, on the Argentine side of the Andes, more than 200 km away from Valdivia. [31], Unlike Valdivia, Osorno was saved from major destruction. [3] Different sources have estimated the monetary cost ranged from US$400 million to $800 million[5] (or $3.46 billion to $6.91 billion in 2019, adjusted for inflation). A few minutes later, after this 8.3 magnitude earthquake was over, 125 people were dead and a third of the buildings in town lay in ruins. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake occurred on this date in 1960. The boat Isabella in Bahía Mansa quickly left the port but lost its anchors. The first of these was the 8.1 Mw Concepción earthquake at 06:02 UTC-4 on 21 May 1960. [42] Two men were charged with the crime of murder and confessed, but later recanted. The epicenter was near Canete (see map) some 700 km south of Santiago although Valdivia, Chile was the most affected city. [32], The United States quickly set up a field hospital following the earthquake. The death toll and monetary losses arising from this widespread disaster are not certain. Originating off the coast of southern Chile on May 22, 1960, the temblor caused substantial damage and loss of life both in that country and—as a result of the tsunamis that it generated—in distant Pacific coastal areas. 2. 1737 Valdivia earthquake - Wikipedia 1737 Valdivia earthquake The 1737 Valdivia earthquake struck south-central Chile on December 24. The History of Us® is a registered trademark, View other events that happened on May 22. [44], There is evidence that a similar earthquake and landslide occurred in 1575 in Valdivia. The magnitude of the Valdivia earthquake was between 9.4 – 9.6 which makes it the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. The relatively low death toll in Chile (5,700) is explained in part by the low population density in the region, and by building practices that took into account the area's high geological activity. Houses built upon elevated areas suffered considerably less damage compared to those on the lowlands, which absorbed great amounts of energy. La Milagrosa was battered by the currents and waves of the tsunami for four days while moving south. [21] The Golgol landslides destroyed parts of international Route 215-CH, which connects to Bariloche in Argentina through Cardenal Antonio Samoré Pass. Events in this list and shown in red on our real-time earthquake map and list are considered “significant events’, and they are determined by a combination of magnitude, number of Did You Feel It responses, and PAGER alert level. Date: May 22, 1960 Time: 3:40 pm By: Olivia Edgett, Triston Leonardi, and … [27] The eruption was first noticed and reported as an explosion by the crew of a United States Air Force plane that was heading to Santiago from Puerto Montt. "1.valdivia Earthquake The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Earth’s history, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. The 1960 Chilean earthquakes were a sequence of strong earthquakes that affected Chile between 21 May and 6 June 1960, centered in the Araucanía, Aysén, and Bío Bío regions of the country. All the details of the earthquake that occurred, Earthquake 5.21km (3.23 miles) away from Los Valdivia (Mexico) The earthquake was a megathrust earthquake resulting from the release of mechanical stress between the subducting Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, on the Peru–Chile Trench. [37], As a result of the earthquake, an international technological cooperation programme was established in the dairy sector. [45] This earthquake was of similar strength and also caused a Riñihuazo. Map of the Chile Earthquake of 1960 #5 The most affected city in the earthquake was Valdivia The Great Chilean earthquake occurred at 15:11 on 22nd May 1960. Valdivia Earthquake, Southern Chile. [33] Aided by the United States, a geological survey of Valdivia was done following the earthquake and resulted in the city's first geological map. Megathrust earthquakes generate tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. Within the Andes, most landslides occurred on forested mountain slopes around the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault. [17], In the Valdivia River and Corral Bay, several vessels were wrecked by the earthquake, among them Argentina, Canelos, Carlos Haverbeck, Melita, and the salvaged remnants of Penco. [24] The blocked San Pedro River, which drains the lake, passes through several towns before reaching the city of Valdivia near the coast.[25]. Traditional wooden houses fared better; although many were uninhabitable if they did not collapse. [13], While the Valdivia earthquake was extraordinarily large, the 2016 Chiloé earthquake hints that it did not release all the potential slip in that segment of the plate interface. World Earthquake Statistics 1. [38] The scholar Erik Dahmén believes that the earthquake resulted in a "creative destruction" for farmers of Southern Chile. Other volcanoes may also have erupted, but none were recorded because of the lack of communication in Chile at the time. As the sea regressed Gloria became stranded between Cerro Guaiguén and Cochinos Island. [37] It received state support through a long-term policy after the earthquake. Soil subsidence also destroyed buildings, deepened local rivers, and created wetlands in such places as the Río Cruces and Chorocomayo, a new aquatic park north of the city. Its epicenter was near Curanilahue. According to the chronicle of Mariño de Lobera, corregidor of Valdivia in 1575, a landslide blocked the outflow of the lagoon of Renigua. 16 major earthquakes, of the magnitude 7 range, occur each year. [8], A number of Spanish-colonial fortifications were completely destroyed. [citation needed], The earthquake did not strike all the territory with the same strength; measured with the Mercalli scale, tectonically depressed areas suffered heavier damage. Canelos was anchored at Corral when the quake struck, filling a cargo of wood and other products destined for northern Chile. Huge earthquake hits Chile On May 21, 1960, the first tremor of a series hits Valdivia, Chile. At 3.40pm on 22 May 1960 Valdivia was hit by the strongest recorded earthquake in the world. Geophysicists consider it a matter of time before this earthquake will be surpassed in magnitude by another. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. [9], A seiche of more than 1 meter was observed on Panguipulli Lake following the earthquake. The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 kilometres (350 mi) south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city. Further north, the port of Talcahuano did not suffer any major damage, only some flooding. It is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Earth’s history, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Most of the buildings in the city were destroyed by the earth's movements or by the devastating tsunamis that followed. Valdivia Earthquake, Southern Chile Date and Time. Its epicenter was near Curanilahue. At Corral, the main port of Valdivia, the water level rose 4 m (13 ft) before it began to recede. As of 2000, the remnants of Canelos were still visible. Suddenly, at two minutes after 6 am local time, the Earth under the coastal town of Concepcion began to shake violently. According to preliminary data, the quake was located at a shallow depth of 10 km. A judge ruled that those involved had "acted without free will, driven by an irresistible natural force of ancestral tradition". Before the earthquake, some of these blocks had modern concrete buildings built after the Great Valdivia fire of 1909. The engine of Canelos was warmed up after the earthquake. Near the city of Valdivia, the earthquake and subsequent aftershocks generated landslides which killed 18 people. The earthquake's rupture zone was 800 km (500 mi) long, stretching from Arauco (37° S) to Chiloé Archipelago (43° S). As the San Pedro River was blocked, the water level of Riñihue Lake started to rise quickly. The first 1960 Concepción earthquake; UTC time: 1960-05-21 10:02: ISC event: 879106: USGS-ANSS: ComCat: Local date: 21 May 1960 () Local time: 6:02 AM UTC-4: Magnitude: 8.1 8.3 M w 7.3 7.5 M S: Depth : 25.0 km : Epicenter: Cañete Coordinates: Areas affected: Concepción, Arauco and Ñuble in Chile: Max. [1] It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and lasted for approximately 10 minutes. [6], The earthquake interrupted and effectively ended Lota's coal miners' march on Concepción as they demanded higher salaries.[7]. Valdivia Earthquake Kendra McDonald 2. 2. Two men on board Canelos died in the incident. [23], During the Great Chilean earthquake, several landslides west of Tralcán Mountain blocked the outflow of Riñihue Lake. The epicenter was near Cañete (see map) some 900 km (435 miles) south of Santiago, with Temuco being the closest large city, while Valdivia was the most affected city. The Valdivia Earthquake took place on the southern coast of Chile, near the city of Valdivia at 3:11 pm (local time) on May 22, 1960. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (M w 9.5), 1964 Alaska earthquake (M w 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (M w 9.2), and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake (M w 9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. There are over 500 active faults in California and most of its residents live within 30 miles of an active fault. Outside Corral the crew rescued six nearly unconscious and dehydrated children on board two boats. The eruption ended on 22 July, 59 days later. [41], In the coastal village Collileufu (La Araucanía Region), native Lafkenches carried out a human sacrifice during the days following the main earthquake. [20] These landslides did not cause many fatalities nor significant economic losses because most of the areas were uninhabited, with only minor roads. Earthquakes in Chile. It was the so called Valdivia earthquake that occurred in 1960 in the southern part of the Latin American nation of Chile, about 400 miles south of its capital Santiago. The community had gathered in Cerro La Mesa, while the lowlands were struck by successive tsunamis. Its economy based on fishing, agriculture and industry had grown. It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 14:11 local time) and its resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the … [28], The eruption fed a 5.5 km long fissure on 135° heading where 21 individual vents have been found. [37], The economy of the coastal town of Queule had during the 1950s developed significantly. [9] Excepting poor building sites, the zone of Mercalli scales intensities of VII or more all lay west of the Andes in a strip running from Lota (37° S) southwards. The most extensive tsunami damage occurred at Isla Chiloe, the coastal area closest to the epicenter. The wave, most likely produced by an earthquake-triggered sediment slide at the lake bottom, killed two people and destroyed a pier in San Carlos de Bariloche city. Chile’s stock market showed no significant decrease and its sovereign debt rating never decreased – in fact, both of these measures improved following the tragic … [42], The sacrifice was learned about by authorities after a boy in the commune of Nueva Imperial denounced to local leaders the theft of two horses; these were allegedly eaten during the sacrifice ritual. It occurred in the afternoon. Earthquakes in Chile. 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